By Jamal T. Manassah
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Additional resources for Alternative Energy Sources. Kuwait Foundation for the Advancement of Sciences
In general, the PWR concept results in relatively compact cores that use available, safe, and easy-to-handle fluids. Its extensive use in marine, sub marine, and land-based power plants accounts for the fact that the largest single group of reactors built to date is of the PWR type. II. B. l. 5 m in diameter, and weighs about 330 tons. Figure II-2 shows a cross-section of such a steam generator manufactured by Westinghouse Electric Corporation. It is of the vertical U-tube recirculation type and consists basically of an evaporator and an upper shell.
At the beginning of core life, control rods are usually used to flatten the radial power distribution. Because of burnup, these rods are later moved out and the power distribution becomes less flat. When a chemical absorber is used, however, power can be flattened at the beginning of core life by spatial variations in fuel enrichment or core composition. This favorable power dis tribution is then maintained to a great degree by simply varying the concentra tion of the chemical absorbed, while the rod positions are maintained.
The driving pres sure may be calculated, for each channel, from: where H0 Fig p0 p£ Pch = = = ~ core nonboiling height, ft. core boiling height, ft. average density in the nonboiling height HQ average density in the boiling height H% average density in the chimney, of height Ech Expressions for the above average densities are usually complex, depending upon such things as the axial heat distribution, the void slip ratio (ratio of average steam velocity to water velocity), system pressures, inlet subcooling, and other factors.
Alternative Energy Sources. Kuwait Foundation for the Advancement of Sciences by Jamal T. Manassah