By Lois N. Magner
Stressing significant subject matters within the background of drugs, this moment version stimulates additional exploration of the occasions, methodologies, and theories that formed scientific practices in a long time earlier and in glossy scientific practice-highlighting the practices of civilizations world wide, in addition to the examine of pioneering scientists and physicians who contributed to our present realizing of well-being and illness.
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Long after the vogue of ‘‘mummy powder’’ had passed, William Konrad Roentgen’s (1845–1923) discovery of X-rays revived Western interest in Egyptian antiquities. During the initial wave of excitement, some eight thousand mummies were studied in a rather crude and hurried manner. At the School of Medicine in Cairo, the formidable trio composed of Sir Grafton Elliot Smith (1871–1937), anatomist, Sir Marc Armand Ruffer (1859–1917), bacteriologist, and Alfred Lucas (1867–1945), chemist, pioneered methods of analyzing mummiﬁed tissues and experimented with mummiﬁcation methods.
1994). Counting the Dead: The Epidemiology of Skeletal Populations. New York: John Wiley and Sons. 2 Ì Medicine in Ancient Civilizations: Mesopotamia and Egypt INTRODUCTION The Greeks thought it easy to deﬁne ‘‘civilization’’: it referred to the qualities of citizens—free men living in cities. Today the concept is regarded as more complex, subtle, and problematic. The term ‘‘culture’’ is used to encompass all the ways of life and customary behaviors invented by human beings. Civilization is, therefore, a particular kind of culture, characterized by increasing complexity in social, economic, and political organization, a settled life, a food supply in excess of subsistence levels, occupational specialization, writing and reckoning, and innovations in the arts and sciences—all maintained by a large number of people over a signiﬁcant period of time.
1983). Paleopathology and the Origins of Agriculture. New York: Academic Press. Conrad, L. , eds. (2000). Contagion: Perspectives from Pre-Modern Societies. Burlington, VT: Ashgate. Chapter 1. Paleopathology and Paleomedicine 23 Fowler, B. (2002). Iceman: Uncovering the Life and Times of a Prehistoric Man Found in an Alpine Glacier. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. Gilbert, R. , and Mielke, J. , eds. (1985). The Analysis of Prehistoric Diets. New York: Academic Press. , eds. (1994). Ancient DNA: Recovery and Analysis of Genetic Material from Paleontological, Archaeological, Museum, Medical, and Forensic Specimens.
A History of Medicine by Lois N. Magner