By Biondo L. Biondi
Seismic pictures are the most important to contemporary exploration and reservoir tracking. '3D Seismic Imaging offers primary thoughts and state-of-the-art equipment for imaging mirrored image seismic information. The booklet coherently provides the most parts of seismic imaging - data-acquisition geometry, migration, and pace estimation - through exposing the hyperlinks that intertwine them. The ebook emphasizes graphical figuring out over theoretical improvement. numerous artificial and box info examples illustrate the presentation of mathematical algorithms. the quantity features a DVD that includes a subset (C3-narrow-azimuth vintage information set) of the SEG-EAGE salt info set and of the corresponding pace version. The DVD additionally features a entire set of PDF slides that may be used to coach the fabric awarded within the publication. additionally Available:
Geophysics within the Affairs of Mankind - ISBN 1560800879
Seismic True-Amplitude Imaging - ISBN 1560801433
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Extra resources for 3D Seismic Imaging
The first class of algorithms includes gathering the crossline direction, which is identified as Y in the figure. methods, which loop over each image point and gather the The contour lines identify points with equal time delays; the contributions of all the input traces that are within the mizero-offset circles have become constant-offset ellipses. As gration aperture. 90. org/ over each input trace and spray the data over all the image is detached and lies above the summation surface. Varying traces within the migration aperture.
The reflections from the steeply dipping salt flanks that are oriented along the inline direction (CMP X) have been strongly attenuated, whereas the reflections oriented along the strike direction (CMP Y) have been stacked properly. Figure 6. Inline section (CMP Y = 8 km) of the interval velocity function. Figure 9. Zero-offset cube obtained by NMO + DMO + stack. 90. org/ azimuthal orientation. However, the deeper reflections on the Figure 7. 5 s) are affected by the NMOfunction. velocity conflict discussed in the text.
The DMO ellipse is coplanar with the offset vector. The time of the bottom of the ellipse is equal to the NMO time, as expected, because flat reflectors do not require a DMO correction. The ellipse passes through the source and receiver locations at the surface. The shape of the ellipse is velocity independent. 15 to satisfy the following inequality: |xzo| ≤ 2h2 ≤ h. 18) Computational cost of poststack imaging Minimizing computational cost is a primary rationale for using poststack imaging, that is, for applying zero-offset migration to data obtained by either NMO + stack or NMO + DMO + stack.
3D Seismic Imaging by Biondo L. Biondi